Parasit Dalam Tubuh Kelinci


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Parasit internal yang bisa menyerang kelinci mencakup cacing dan protozoa (intracellular parasites)

Nematodes

  • Trichostrongylidae -Cacing perut. Kelinci terinfeksi pada saat memakan telur cacing. Cacing akan tumbuh di dalam perut kelinci. Penyebaran cacing ini biasanya tidak diiringi tanda apapun pada kelinci. Pada infeksi yang sudah parah, sulit menaikkan berat dan turunnya berat badan kelinci dapat terjadi. Penyembuhan bisa menggunakan Fenbendazole selama 5 hari.
  • Passalurus ambiguus -Cacing kremi. Biasanya ada di sekum atau pencernaan besar. Penyebaran cacing ini biasanya tidak disertai dengan tanda-tanda pada kelinci, walaupun pada penyebaran yang sudah parah. Penyembuhan: Piperazine di makanan atau minumannya; febendazole sebanyak 50 ppm di makanan selama 5 hari. Kelinci terinfeksi dari makanan dan minumannya. Spora cacing tersebar melalui urin dan dapat hidup berbulan-bulan. Cacing kremi kelinci adalah hal yang umum. Cacing ini tidak menular ke manusia. Penyakit ini dapat ditemukan bahkan di kelinci yang kebersihannya terjaga.
  • Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis, Cittotaenia variabilis -Cacing pita. Cacing ini berada di pencernaan kecil, liver dan sambungan otot. Tanda-tandanya kehilangan nafsu makan, lesu ,membesarnya perut dan pembengkakan di balik kulit. Cacing pita tertular melalui makanan yang telah terkontaminasi telur cacing pita. Biang penularan pada kelinci adalah anjing. Jangan memberikan rumput yang berada dekat anjing kepada kelinci. namun cacing pita biasanya menjangkiti kelinci liar dan bukan kelinci rumahan.

Protozoa

  • Eimeria stiedae -(Juga dikenal sebagai Monocystis stiedae , Coccidium oviforme, dan Coccidium cuniculi). Penyakit ini menyerang hati. Tanda-tandanya biasanya tidak terlalu terlihat, yaitu kehilangan nafsu makan, bulu yang kasar, kehilangan berat badan, pembesaran pada perut, lesu, kesulitan bernapas dan diare. Parasit ini menyerang gati dan menyumbat saluran empedu dan tidak merusak pencernaan. Kematianterjadi pada kelinci anakan.Parasit dapat terditek melalui tes kotoran kelinci menggunakan cara direct smear.
    Pengobatan menggunakan beberapa obat sampai kekebalan tubuh kelinci terbentuk.
    Menjaga kebersihan kandang dapat menghilangkan atau meminimalisir adanya parasit. kelinci yang terkontaminasi dapat disingkirkan dari kandang. Hindari penularan melalui kotoran, makanan atau minuman. Kandungan amonia 10% dapat mematikan parasit. Anak-anak kelinci harus dipisahkan dari ibu yang terkontaminasi. Dan basmi hama, karena hama dapat menularkan parasit ini.
  • Eimeria irresidua, E. magna, E. media, E. perforans and others -Parasit ini menyerang saluran usus. Biasanya tanda-tandanya sulit di deteksi. Parasit ini tidak ada di dalam kotoran yang dimakan kelinci pada malam hari. Yang bisa terjadi adalah kehilangan berat badan pada kelinci atau sulit menaikkan berat badan. Tanda terparah adalah diare dengan adanya lendir dan darah. kelinci akan mengalami kehausan yang luar biasa.  Kelinci akan mati karena dehidrasi. Pada infeksi yang parah, kelinci akan mati sebelum parasit berada dalam kotorannya.
    Pengobatannya sama dengan pada penyakit hati.
  • Toxoplasma gondii (synonym: T. cuniculi) -Jarang ada pada kelinci, namun bisa terjadi jika hidup bersama kucing. Penularannya melalui kotoran kucing. Parasit berada di otak, getah bening, limpa, hati, ginjal, paru-paru, jantung dan mata. Gejala akut biasanya ditemukan di kelinci muda. Kehilangan nafsu makan tiba-tiba, demam tinggi dan meningkatnya kecepatan bernapas. kelinci akan mengeluarkan cairan pada saluran pernapasan. Menjadi lesu dan kadang kejang-kejang diikuti dengan kelumpuhan dan kematian bisa terjadi setelah 2 sampai 8 hari.
    Yang biasanya terjangkit adalah kelinci tua. Biasanya kehilangan nafsu makan dan anemia, diikuti dengan kelumpuhan pada bagian belakang. Kelinci dapat mati atau sembuh total.
    Penyakit dapat dideteksi melalu beberapa cara, yang diantaranya tes darah.
    Walaupun obat-obatan digunakan, pengobatan kurang efektif. Kandang yang bersih adalah keharusan. Sebagian desinfektan kurang efektif, tapi panas dapat melumpuhkan parasit. Breed kelinci yang terbebas dari parasit. Penyakit ini dapat menular ke manusia.

Internal parasites that may attack pet rabbits range from worms to protozoans (intracellular parasites).

Nematodes

  • Trichostrongylidae—rabbit stomach worms. Rabbits get infected upon ingesting worm eggs. Parasite develops to maturity in stomach. The infestation with these worms usually has no clinical signs. In severe infections failure to gain weight or weight loss could result. Treatment: Fenbendazole in feed for 5 days.
  • Passalurus ambiguus —rabbit pinworm located in cecum and large intestine. The infestation with these worms usually has no clinical signs, even in heavy infections. Treatment: Piperazine for two days in food or water; fenbendazole 50 ppm in feed for 5 days. Rabbits get infected through ingestion of contaminated food and water. spores are shed in the urine and can remain viable for months. Rabbit pinworms are not transmissible to humans. Pinworms are extremely common in rabbits and may be difficult to prevent even with good sanitation.
  • Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis, Cittotaenia variabilis—rabbit tapeworms. These parasites may be located in small intestine, liver or connective tissue of muscles. Signs may include loss of appetite, lethargy, enlarged abdomen and swelling under skin. Tapeworm are transmitted through ingestion of feed (especially grass) contaminated with eggs. The primary host of most tapeworms that affect rabbits is the dog. Rabbits should not be allowed to eat grass in area where dogs run. Rabbits are the primary host of Cittotaenia, but this tapeworm is usually found in wild rabbits, rarely domestic rabbits.

Protozoa

  • Eimeria stiedae (also known as Monocystis stiedae , Coccidium oviforme, and Coccidium cuniculi)—These protozoan parasites cause hepatic coccidiosis. Signs are usually mild and may include loss of appetite, rough coat, weight loss, enlarged abdomen, lethargy, constipation and diarrhea. In this form of coccidiosis the parasites invade the liver and block bile ducts rather than forming colonies on intestine walls. It is more serious than intestinal coccidiosis. Jaundice may be present in advanced stages. Death is usually rare, except in young rabbits with heavy infections. Diagnosis is made through identification of oocysts in feces using a direct smear, flotation, or concentration- flotation methods.Treatment involves several drugs that controls the organism until natural immunity develops.Excellent husbandry can eliminate coccidiosis or keep it to a low level. Infected rabbits can be eliminated from the population. Barrier systems may be used. It is important to prevent fecal contamination of feed and water. A 10% ammonia solution is lethal to oocysts. Young rabbits should be separated from the dam as soon as possible, since suckling rabbits are especially susceptible to coccidiosis. Vermin must be controlled, and it should be explained to animal caretakers that they can mechanically transmit the disease.
  • Eimeria irresidua, E. magna, E. media, E. perforans and others—very common protozoan parasites that infest intestinal tract; different species prefer various areas. These are transmission is by ingestion of sporulated oocysts. It is generally accepted that “night feces” which the rabbits eat, do not contain infectious oocysts. Rabbits may have no clinical signs. More severely affected rabbits (usually young) lose weight or fail to gain. Diarrhea, if present, can be intermittent to profuse and watery with mucus and blood; such animals have intense thirst. The parasitized intestinal epithelial cells die, and this may cause ulceration and accumulation of a mixed mononuclear exudate. This may cause grossly observable multiple white lesions in the intestinal wall.Deaths are due to dehydration and secondary bacterial infections. In cases of extremely heavy primary infections, rabbits may die before oocysts are passed in the feces. Treatment and control is the same as for hepatic coccidiosis
  • Toxoplasma gondii (synonym: T. cuniculi)—a relatively rare protozoan parasite in rabbits, but can occur in households with cats. It is transmitted through ingestion of cat feces containing infective oocysts and also by the transplacental route. The parasites are located in the brain, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, and eyes. Acute disease is found most commonly in young rabbits. Sudden loss of appetite, fever, (greater than 104 F) and increased respiratory rate may be seen. Rabbits develop an ocular and nasal discharge, become lethargic, and central nervous signs of localized or generalized convulsions may occur a few days after initial signs are noticed. Paralysis may develop, especially in the hindquarters. Death usually occurs 2 to 8 days after the onset of signs. In chronic disease found most commonly in older rabbits, loss of appetite and anemia are common sequels. Central nervous signs, such as paralysis of the hindquarters may occur. Rabbits may die suddenly or recover.The diagnosis is usually done by a combination of histopathological examination of lesions, identification of organisms, and blood tests.Although drug therapy may be used, treatment is usually not practical. Good husbandry is essential. Most disinfectants are ineffective, but heating and drying will inactivate the oocysts. If toxoplasmosis is present with a colony, only seronegative animals should be used for breeding. Rabbits may be a significant reservoir for the disease in man.Read more: Sumber

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